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History of drugs
What are drugs?
When and how they appeared en masse in the life of mankind?
This generic term combined so different substances differently act on different people that give a precise definition was not so easy.World Health Organization (WHO) broadly defined the drug as a substance or mixture of substances other than necessary for normal life (like food), over which entails a change in the functioning of the organism and possibly its structure. " Generally, the term "drugs" - a concept, rather, a legal rather than medical. In Russia, considered to be drug substances, ranked in order of those of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Since alcohol is considered a food product, to the extent it is legally not a drug. For the same reason, deduced from the use of the term "alcohol addiction" that existed in the 20 - 30 years. However, the WHO and tagging alcohol among drug users recently - he is too powerful patrons in the face of monopolistic producers. For the same reason a part of our daily life is tobacco. And although alcohol annually worldwide, and especially in Russia, killing twenty times more people than die from overdoses of heroin, in the popular consciousness, it is considered, in general, safe. This does not mean that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin: just a problem of different types of addiction is very versatile, and here in the calculation will need to take a great deal. Let us look back in time to trace the dramatic history of the relationship between men and drug users.
At the root of early religion very often are the psychoactive plants, which delicately woven into the sacred rites and traditions of everyday people and accompany the person from birth until death.Mack hypnotic papaveraceous known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. Detection of poppy seeds and poppy capsules during archaeological excavations near Lake Constance in Northern Europe has given historians reason to believe that poppy plantations may apply to the Late Bronze Age. The oldest traces of cultivation are found in modern-day Swiss lake dwellings. First mentioned in the history of a plant with psychoactive properties of a poppy. Another five thousand years ago it was used by the Sumerians, who lived on the lands of Lower Mesopotamia, an area of modern Iraq. On clay tablets, found during excavations in the Sumerian city of Nippur, identified the recommendations of preparation and consumption of opium. The Sumerians called it "Hubert", which means "joy".
About 2700 BC in China have used cannabis (in the form of infusion, as tea): Emperor Sheng Nun ordered his subjects to accept it as a cure for gout, and absent-mindedness, cough and diarrhea. On the walls of the funerary complexes of Indians in Central and South America, there are images of people, those who chewed coca leaves (one way cocaine), dating from the middle of 3 thousand BC.
For the first time a person could open the intoxicating and hypnotic properties of the poppy or hemp quite by chance - through inhalation of smoke during combustion plants. The Greek historian Herodotus (V century BC. Er.), Reporting on the life of a Scythian tribe Massagetae (northern coast of the Caspian Sea), wrote: "They sat around a tree, throwing fire bred some fruits and intoxicating smoke from these fruits, as Greeks were intoxicated with wine. "
Head poppy appears in many myths of ancient Greece as a symbol of forgetfulness of pain, suffering, suffering. The ancient Greeks believed that he was a flower cultivation grew from the tears of Venus, which she shed after learning of the death of his dear Adonis, and considered it a necessary attribute of the god of sleep - Hypnos and his brother, the god of death - Thanatos.Consequently, the god of sleep they always portrayed as a lying or sitting young man or an angel with wings, carrying in the hands of poppy heads. Sometimes a wreath of poppy heads were adorned his head. God of death as depicted in the form of the young man with a wreath of poppies, but with black wings and a black robe and tilted quench the burning torch. Likewise, the goddess of the night always seemed to the ancients entwined with garlands of poppy flowers - a symbol of coming down to earth at this time of rest, repose, as well, and god of dreams - Morpheus, even the housing of which - the realm of a dream - to represent their fantasy planted with poppy plants.
"When Morpheus, - said the ancient Romans - wants someone to put down, or blow on it a pleasant dream, then he touches it only poppy flower."
Dried latex incised poppy capsules - Opium (opium) - apparently used as early as the early Mycenaean period of Greek culture (XIV-XII century BC. E). Three boxes poppy crowned head of the statue of the goddess of healing at that time. The name "opium" is derived from the Greek "opium" - juice. From this word later formed, apparently, the Hebrew "ophion" and Arab "af-yun" or "afiun", which can be found in many other Asian languages. British Egyptologist R. Thompson in 1924, said the mention in ancient Egyptian manuscripts collection procedures and the medical use of opium. As an example, he cites the following text: "Early in the morning the old woman, boys and girls collected the juice on the cuts (the poppy capsules), a small iron spoon, and then transferred it to the pot for food."
According to historians of the Jews in the Bible mention juice poppy. Thus, in several passages of the Old Testament can be found a word corresponding to the Hebrew "head" and could mean the crown of poppy. In the Talmud, this gathering of religious and ethical and legal situation in the IV-V centuries BC. er. and containing pre-scientific information in medicine, there is one reference to opium, expressed in the Greek etymology of the word - "ophion" (Greek: Wed. - opium). But except for opiate addiction in the ancient world have already met, and other forms of desire befuddle variety of toxic substances. Remained a curious historical document in which the Roman general Pliny, the commandant of the fortress Triirum (in place of the modern city of Trier in western Germany) complained to Rome that his soldiers are running around on the Rhine riparian hills collect "absintum" - that is to say, wormwood - boil it in boilers, and then drink the potion and smelly "walk like a dope." In order to combat this "addiction" Pliny the requests to establish a regular supply of wine from Italy.
In the early Middle Ages, during the conquest of the Arabs, for which opium could partly be a surrogate for forbidden by Islam wine, the culture of opium poppy has penetrated further east.Opium has another useful property in some cases - to drown the famine, the practical application of which turned out to be very helpful to the Muslims, among whom there was always a certain number of people who endured the hardships of rigorous hard month of fasting, known as "Ramadan".
In the Middle Ages in Europe, too poppy plant has not been completely forgotten. For example, Charlemagne, in his chapter house even ordered to poppy was cultivated in every peasant's garden, and that in payment of taxes from each household be amended by a bushel of poppy seeds. Start a purely medical use of opium can start to lead from the "Father of Medicine Hippocrates (440-377 years. BC. Er.). In his writings mentioned properties 300 medicinal plants, including where there is reference to a substance called "mekoninom", which is attributed to drug effect. More specific reference to the milky juice of poppy can be found in Theophrastus (about 350 BC. Er.). In his hand, "mekonin" reliably indicates opium and is recommended for eye diseases and disorders. For the period of classical antiquity began a new era characterized by the cult of knowledge of practical medicine.Skribony Largie in his book "De Compositiones Medicamentorum" (1940 N. Er.) Describes in detail the method of collecting opium from poppy capsules, Valafrid Strabo ("The culture of gardens') - the culture of poppy cultivation. Greek doctor Dioscorides, who is considered the founder of pharmacology in Europe, in the book "Materia Medica" examines the activity of extracts of the whole plant, which he calls "mekoninom, and juice caps -" Opium ". Dioscorides attributed to both the name of opium - the diode kodion. Drug under this name for long retained its importance is mentioned in German Pharmacopoeia (at the end of XIX century).
Description of the medical use of opium (opium) is found in the 37-volume "Natural History" by Pliny the Elder (I century AD. Er.). In Celsus and other Latin authors I century AD a description of the drug "poppy tears". With the authority of the Roman physician Claudius Galen (129-201 years. Mr.. Er.) Enthusiastic about opium, some historians have attributed extraordinary popularity of opium in Rome in the early first millennium. Arab doctors later, but just as intensely introducing opium and drugs in medical practice.Abu Ali ibn Sina, known more as Avicenna (980-1037), recommends that the opium for diarrhea and eye disease. The death of Avicenna is associated with excessive enthusiasm of its opium. In the era of the Crusades of Christian armies in Palestine opium as a drug, apparently begins to gradually penetrate into Europe. Famous medieval physician Tabernemontanus even wrote a book entitled "Magsamensaft" ("The juice of poppy seeds). In it he pointed out the necessity of using this drug in clearly defined cases and did not advise them to abuse. The first medication specifically made from opium and prescribed to the patient in the fifteenth century the famous Paracelsus.
Despite the millennial use of soporific poppy and its products, in any scientific treatise of the above makes no mention of any toxic effects of opium and does not provide identification of descriptions of possible addiction. Apparently, the level of medical knowledge at that time did not allow to fully understand the problem of drug addiction.
Activation of conquest and trade relations between peoples and cultures, among other things led to the penetration of the traditions of drug use in the new territory. So as a result of the Crusades and Marco Polo Europeans learned the opium and hashish, which are widespread in the East. Later epoch of great geographical discoveries and exploration of new continents by Europeans introduced the civilized world and with new drugs. Only the discovery of America gave the world a coke, and various hallucinogens and tobacco. True, the development of new Europeans "products and materials" did not go very fast. Thus, the first European, smoking tobacco - a satellite of Columbus, Rodrigo de Jerez - upon arrival from a trip to Spain was jailed because authorities have decided that it possessed the devil. Known even a few attempts to outlaw coffee and tea in those days.
In 1560, the Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sagatun, longtime missionary in the New World, published in Europe voluminous work "General History of New Spain." There he was, among other things, spoke about the widespread habit among the Mexican Indians eat cactus peyote, or tincture of peyote to achieve an altered state of consciousness. This intoxication, informs on his father Bernardino, usually lasts two or three days, and then goes away. "This plant supports them (the Indians) and gives them strength in battle, eliminating the fear, hunger and thirst," - he writes.
The Cult of the cactus peyote and other hallucinogens, such as fungi, was born in pre-Columbian America in ancient times. In many areas of Central America there are stone sculptures of figures mushrooms - people up to a meter. According to one of the century-old tradition in those days a few Indian tribes, united revolt against the enslaving of their warlike and violent neighbors. But in the decisive battle of the rebels were defeated. The surviving rebel foes were driven into the hot and arid desert. There they were facing imminent death from thirst. But on the way they met a fleshy cactus in thick Pacinian which, except for water, it was still something that allowed people not only to cross the desert, but also to hear the voice of the Divine.
In Europe, the tradition of drug use was present since ancient times. For example, in the historical archives of the British Admiralty has a very interesting reference, on complaints of Admiral Nelson, his sailors smoke ship ropes made of hemp.Around the same time, in the early nineteenth century expeditionary corps soldiers of Napoleon invaded Egypt, met with hashish.Naturalists who accompanied Napoleon during the Egyptian campaign, noted that many Aboriginal people - men hit by some "strange mental paralysis," and attributed it to smoking cannabis.Napoleon was already concerned about the abuse of cannabis in his army, and tried to ban his use of his soldiers. By that time, in the advanced countries of Europe have in the whole active part of the everyday life of the massive use of various, especially very exotic, "colonial" products. Thus in the eighteenth century, coffee consumption in the UK jumps from 2 to 120 million pounds a year.But one should understand, except for coffee, tobacco, tea, cocoa, rubber, spices and other, quite progressive and necessary new European consumer, the Old World are beginning to penetrate hashish and opium.
In addition, the enterprising British quickly realize the extremely high profits possible in the drug trade, particularly opium. If the above are traditionally the world's leading centers for the supply and distribution of opium were partially Arabia, Turkey and, soon businesslike British intercepted the commodity initiative from the carotid of oriental despotism and focused all the benefits of world trade in drugs in their hands. The British in the territories of their colonial possessions in India in the late eighteenth century began to organize extensive poppy plantations and began to produce in large quantities for export of opium to neighboring Muslim countries and especially in China.
The first mass outbreak of drug addiction in Europe refers to 1840.It was then in England have been taken "enhanced measures in favor of temperance." Naturally in the process of reducing the possibilities of drinking and the high cost of alcohol, the masses began to look for substitutes for alcohol and quickly found a replacement for a drug binge. The demand for opium increased instantly and pharmacists in the industrial English towns were rapidly acquire a good condition, selling an unprecedented number of first opium pills for workers who become alcohol can not afford.Annual consumption of opium in England in 1859 was 61,000 pounds, or about 27 and a half tons. Average dose for an adult are 30 grams per day. Based on the daily administration of this dose, the opium consumed 5 percent of Britons. Number of retail outlets, where opium was sold in England at this time is estimated between 16 to 25 thousand. In Ireland, at the same time, an outbreak of etheromania, which resulted in the phenomenon of general anesthesia.
In France, it all started in the late thirties - early forties, when a French doctor Moreau de Tours on his return from Algeria invited his friends to try "davamesku" - cookies from hashish. The effect was stunning, especially for a group of writers, among whom was Charles Baudelaire and Theophile Gautier. Was soon organized a somewhat unusual club, known as "Club of hashish." Hemp is so spread rapidly in Parisian society, during the Paris uprising in 1848, the troublemakers from the student community marched through the streets with placards demanding that the free sale of cannabis.
The following events, which contributed to the active development of thebaism in the nineteenth century, historians believe the Crimea (1856-1857) and Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). A large number of injuries and operations carried out under morphine anesthesia contributed to popularization of morphine. With him were great hopes of practicing physicians. Mislead physicians consisted in a false belief that morphine, unlike opium supposedly will not cause addiction, as the conventional wisdom that addiction to opium, "is due to the property of the stomach, and subcutaneous injection of morphine can supposedly eliminate" interest "of the body. In the U.S., likewise the first outbreak thebaism, known as "soldier's disease" caused by civil war, due to the fact that morphine was used as an anesthetic for severe injuries.
In the early nineteenth century, science began to put his hand in the development and improvement "of consumer characteristics" of drugs, learning to provide pure alkaloids, highly narcotic action items from the plant material. The first step was taken in 1803, when the Hanoverian chemist Friedrich Sertyurner able to expand opium and select a white crystalline powder that turned out to be 10 times stronger than opium. Its preparation he named after the Greek god of sleep morphine.
The invention of the syringe for injection, made in 1853 by Charles-Gabriel Pravazom, opened the next phase in the recent history of drug use. The action of substances entering directly into the blood, amplified by several times.
In the years 1859-1860. Albert Niemann isolated from the coca leaf alkaloid cocaine and established its structure. In 1878, an American physician Bentley proposed the idea of using cocaine as a "substitute" to combat thebaism. Such "treatment" has transformed into a new vice - cocainism, and in some cases were victims of a double addiction - thebaism and cocainism.
And at the end of the century in 1898, another German chemist Heinrich Drezer, the inventor of aspirin, converting morphine, received a new chemical compound, which was almost 10 times stronger than morphine. It was heroin, initially encouraged by the perceived physicians as a means to an extremely wide range of therapeutic options. It immediately began to be used for treating cough, pain and much more. Immediately the German company "Bayer" to mass-produce "anesthetic powder. In 1896 A. Haffterom from the Mexican cactus which atstki called peyote, mescaline, an alkaloid was isolated, and in 1919 by E. Spath established its chemical structure and recreated it with the synthesis. Mescaline was the first hallucinogen which was obtained as a pure substance that is available for the study of states' mental illusions and other perceptual changes caused by chemicals.
In the mid-nineteenth century Europe and especially in France spread absinthe - liquor infused tarragon. Since ancient times in medicine around the teas and extracts of wormwood used for various medicinal purposes and were considered to be particularly effective for getting rid of worms, and rubbing and dried leaves are used to deal with bedbugs and fleas. It is believed that the modern absinthe was born during the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century, when thousands of supporters of the monarchy fled the country. Dr. Pierre-immigrant Ordiner took refuge in western Switzerland, where once during a horse riding found thickets of wild wormwood. Aware of its properties from the history of ancient Rome, the doctor planned to experiment with. His final recipe absinthe allegedly consisted of infusions of wormwood, anise, fennel, lemon balm, coriander and chamomile. And was called the "Green Fairy" for its miraculous properties. When the doctor died, his housekeeper opened the bar, where she was selling Absinthe Dr. Ordinera. According to one version, he once tried two French immigrant Henri Dubois and his son Henri-Louis Pernod - and so were surprised by the taste semidesyatigradusnogo elixir that have opened in France, its production, buying a drink recipe from the old lady.
The popularity of absinthe in France increased dramatically during the French colonial wars in North Africa, which began in 1830 and peaked in 1844-1847, respectively. French military were given a certain amount of absinthe to prevent malaria, dysentery and other diseases, as well as for disinfection of drinking water. Action liqueurs proved so effective that the drink has become firmly established in the French army life from Madagascar to Indo-China. At the same time in the Army in North Africa are increasingly encountered cases of paranoid schizophrenia. Among French colonists and exiles in Algeria too, the fashion on absinthe, and even the Arabs appreciated the action and the taste of wormwood on potions. If Badawi wanted to buy absinthe, he would rather stealthily approach the French soldiers and hinted at the fact that camels are suffering worms.
When French soldiers from the African battalion returned to France, they brought with them and their addiction to absinthe.Soon the green-eyed nymph has become wildly popular, both among the prosperous bourgeoisie, and among the Parisian bohemians. The Great Victor Hugo began the day with a glass of absinthe in a cafe "Prokop" and it is in its final cafe Rezhans "and the famous impressionist painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, unable to bear parting with a drink for over an hour, taking them with him in flask, let into the handle stick.
But soon the doctors talked about the devastating effects that brought with it a regular intake, which can even cause hallucinations. It turned out that contained in absinthe wormwood oil literally destroys the human brain. Prolonged use of tincture causes dizziness, weakening of mental activity, depression, insanity, men are more likely to suffer from impotence, women were more stillbirths. But the absinthe at the time enjoyed great popularity in all strata of society. From 1875 until the First World War the consumption of absinthe in France increased 15-fold per capita. However, the "shower" of becoming smaller, the population has steadily decreased, it became increasingly mentally ill, suffering from nervous disorders, men unfit for military service.Physicians, and behind them and government officials sounded the alarm.
Back in the mid-nineteenth century, Flaubert so briefly formulates an opinion on absinthe in the "Lexicon truths":
Absinthe: The extremely strong poison. One glass - and you're dead. "Journalists drink it when they write their articles. He killed more soldiers than the Bedouins. From him die, the French army."
In 1905, absinthe was banned in Belgium, then in other European countries and the United States. Most strongly resisted the manufacturers and traders of France, but in this country as the production and sale of absinthe were banned. To a large extent, it is "due" absinthe France went to the First World War did not completely prepared, and later Hitler called the French "a degenerate nation."
In the late nineteenth century in Europe, various forms of addiction are very significant social phenomenon, so present in society that many eminent writers in their works vividly described this aspect of the life of the then civilized society. It all started, perhaps most clearly and unambiguously v1850, shortly after the publication of the novel by Charles Kingsley "Alton Locke", when public opinion in Europe to recognize the moral evil of opium. Charles Dickens in 1870, depicted the life of opium dens of the novel "The Mystery of Edwin Drood," Oscar Wilde in 1891 - in "Portrait of Dorian Gray, Arthur Conan Doyle in 1892 - in the story" The Man with a curved lip. " A dramatic death of the actress Billie Carleton in 1918 spawned dark rumors about the opium of life in Britain.
Another well-known to all of us subject. Drink Coca - Cola. His name sounds that way because originally composed of brown soft drink containing extract of African nut tree kola and coca leaves.That's the very, of which cocaine is extracted. Coca-Cola was invented in 1886 in the U.S. city of Atlanta pharmacist Pemberton.At the same time he sought the change then popular in America, the national drink. This drink was a wine nastoennoe on the leaves of the coca plant. The wine is banned, but not for cocaine, but because of the prohibition and the prohibition of sale of any alcohol. At that time, Coca-Cola bottle labels, even on its soda portrayed leaves of the coca bush. A chewing gum and cigarettes with the addition of the narcotic plants then can be purchased at any U.S. store. And only in the early twentieth century under the pressure of hard facts about the dangers of the drug from the formulation drink coca extract was removed.
Very interesting and instructive to consider the history of drug abuse in China. For the first time the emergence and use of opium in China was noted in ancient texts on medicine date back to the X century by. er. For a long time, opium is exported to the country mainly from India, and with the beginning of the Age of Discovery - from Portugal. At the same time until the second half of the seventeenth century opium imported solely as a drug, mainly against dysentery. In the XVII century, the Spaniards, trading in the Philippines and southern China, are imported into these countries tobacco. Then the Dutch introduced the custom of adding a tobacco opium. The Dutch considered it valid tool in the fight against malaria, the Chinese also understood it as a way of intoxication. Tobacco smoke opium to smoking pure opium was one step: and soon in China entrenched custom smoking of pure opium. The country has developed opiokurenie, soon acquired a disastrous nature. In 1729, the decree of Emperor Yung Chang, and in 1800 - Emperor Kia Kong prohibits the sale of opium for smoking, and the content of opium smoking in China. Despite the laws of England and the Netherlands in pursuit of profit continue smuggling in China is huge amounts of opium. At the end of XVIII century, all opium trade is monopolized in the hands of the East India Company, which owned vast plantations of opium in Bengal in India. English could regulate the flow of the drug on the market.First, a lot of cheap, then even more, but more expensive. The classical scheme of "landing on the needle," but in the size of the entire Chinese civilization.
The famous economist Martin Montgomery wrote: "Dirty slave trade was simply an act of mercy compared to the opium trade. We did not destroy the body of African blacks, because our interest is required to preserve their lives and health as possible. A salesman opium deliberately kill the body, so even after as corrupted, degraded and devastated human morality. "
Beginning in 1830, just seven years of British opium exports to China increased from 120 tons to almost two and a half thousand tons. Similar magnitude never dreamed of any of the modern drug cartels. Trade in other goods almost stopped, the leak of silver from the country's disorganized finances. Millions of Chinese coolies from the simple to the princes, were victims of addiction.The Government was horrified to find that among the employees of the Criminal and Tax Chambers more than half - addicts. State institutions, the system of artificial irrigation, even the Imperial Guard unraveling.
Punishment for "abuse of opium" did not help. Finally, the emperor decided to inflict a serious blow to drug trafficking. In 1839, in Canton began rampant confiscation of opium, the court Potion drowned in the sea. In response, Britain made "to protect the sacred principles of trade" and the beginning of the war. China could not resist the combined socio-economic and military pressure and went on to make concessions. By the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 the British opened five major Chinese ports, especially at the bargain they received the island of Hong Kong, which increased their colony of Hong Kong.
Winners have promised to stop trade in poison. But this promise and remained on paper. Trade has continued to gain momentum, and in 1856 it led to the second war. This second Opium War ended in 1858, and under the terms of the contract Tiensinskogo China officially had to agree to import opium, but he could in this case could set high customs duties. The opium trade was to bring in large revenues to the treasury, so the Chinese government for some time come to terms with a serious defect, flourished throughout the country. For the poor folk were arranged throughout the special kurilni, called the British opium shops. The hallmark of this kurilni was taped at her entrance yellow piece of paper that is used to filter opium. This sign, and an invitation to visit. Interior kurilni has something repulsive.
"Imagine - tells Rambosson, an Englishman who lived in while in China - a dark, gloomy, damp, located almost in the land of the barn door is locked and the windows are closed tightly with lockable shutters and the only lights which are barely flickering light bulbs for raskurivaniya opium . Everywhere placed portable bed, covered with mats and rugs made of straw to serve for those smokers who, in order to indulge their dreams, you want a horizontal position. By entering here, you're choking on the acrid, irritating throat smoke opium. "
In such kurilne can always find dozens of smokers to the challenges before them cups of tea. Alone, with pomutnevshimi eyes and wandering eye, seem to live in a completely different world, while others differ astonishing talkative and are as if under the influence of the terrible irritation. Their faces are painful, pale, eyes sunken, surrounded by bruises, the language is confused, his feet barely move and give way, like a drunk. Some are, from time to time quench your thirst with tea, while others still somehow moving, waving his arms and screaming. If you stay a while in this kurilne, you can see how little by little, all immersed in deep sleep, lasting, according to the amount smoked opium smoker and nature, from 2 to 12 hours and is accompanied by a variety of dreams, looking again on the nature and mood of the smoker.Wake-up from this dream is usually very difficult: the head, as the lead, whitened and swollen tongue, lack of appetite and pain throughout the body. And here's how to feel the need to sober drunks and smokers of opium - the need for a new excitation of nerves by smoking opium. He lights his pipe again and again doing the same thing. And so on endlessly, like an alcoholic who suffers voraciously. In the end - all they possessed, or mad, as in delirium tremens, delirium, making it so dangerous that, for example, on the island of Java, the Dutch authorities had to issue a decree kill this kind of dangerous for a society of smokers, or whether it affects the paralysis, and such a person generally not able to move normally and will soon die without foreign interference.
The Chinese government has been struggling with a massive spread of opium, although the revenues generated from the state smoking is very high, since the tax was levied in kurilnyah with each handset. The Chinese emperor took the most energetic measures to defeat this evil among civil servants and the army.Chinese progressives staged public reading, writing and stage plays for the people, where in the darkest colors depicted harm of opium and miserable end of those people who are addicted to opium ...
Soon after the English pattern with China signed their indentured France and the USA.
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